A Guide to Mobile and Web Technology(LAMP)

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CSS3 Interview Questions & Answers

1. What is CSS ?
The full form of CSS is Cascading Style Sheets. It is a styling language which is simple enough for HTML elements. It is popular in web designing, and its application is common in XHTMLalso.

2. What is the origin of CSS ?
Standard Generalized Markup Language marked the beginning of style sheets in 1980s.

3. What are the different variations of CSS ?
The variations for CSS are:
CSS 1
CSS 2
CSS 2.1
CSS 3
CSS 4

4. What are the limitations of CSS ?
Limitations are:
Ascending by selectors is not possible
Limitations of vertical control
No expressions
No column declaration
Pseudo-class not controlled by dynamic behavior
Rules, styles, targeting specific text not possible

5. What are the advantages of CSS ?
Advantages are:
Bandwidth
Site-wide consistency
Page reformatting
Accessibility
Content separated from presentation

6. What are CSS frameworks?
It is a pre-planned libraries, which allows easier and more standards-compliant webpage styling, using CSS language.

7. How block elements can be centered with CSS1?
Block level elements can be centered by:
The margin-left and margin-right properties can be set to some explicit value:
In this case, the left and right margins will be each, five ems wide since they split up the ten ems left over from (40em-30em). It was unnecessary for setting up an explicit width for the BODY element; it was done here for simplicity.

8. Who maintains the CSS specifications?
World Wide Web Consortium maintains the CSS specifications.

9. In how many ways can a CSS be integrated as a web page?
CSS can be integrated in three ways:
Inline: Style attribute can be used to have CSS applied HTML elements.
Embedded: The Head element can have a Style element within which the code can be placed.
Linked/ Imported: CSS can be placed in an external file and linked via link element.

10. What benefits and demerits do External Style Sheets have?
Benefits:
One file can be used to control multiple documents having different styles.
Multiple HTML elements can have many documents, which can have classes.
To group styles in composite situations, methods as selector and grouping are used.
Demerits:
Extra download is needed to import documents having style information.
To render the document, the external style sheet should be loaded.
Not practical for small style definitions.

11. Discuss the merits and demerits of Embedded Style Sheets?
Merits of Embedded Style Sheets:
Multiple tag types can be created in a single document.
Styles, in complex situations, can be applied by using Selector and Grouping methods.
Extra download is unnecessary.
Demerits of Embedded Style Sheets:
Multiple documents cannot be controlled.

12. What does CSS selector mean?
A string equivalent of HTML elements by which declarations or a set of it, is declared and is a link that can be referred for linking HTML and Style sheet is CSS selector.

13. Enlist the media types CSS allows?
The design and customization of documents are rendered by media. By applying media control over the external style sheets, they can be retrieved and used by loading it from the network.

14. Differentiate logical tags from physical tags?
While physical tags are also referred to as presentational mark-up, logical tags are useless for appearances.
Physical tags are newer versions while logical tags are old and concentrate on content.

15. Differentiate Style Sheet concept from HTML?
While HTML provides easy structure method, it lacks styling, unlike Style sheets. Moreover, style sheets have better browser capabilities and formatting options.

16. Describe ‘ruleset’?
Ruleset : Selectors can be attached to other selectors to be identified by ruleset.
It has two parts:
Selector, e.g. R and
declaration {text-indent: 11pt}

17. Comment on the Case-sensitivity of CSS ?
Although, there are no case-sensitivity of CSS, nevertheless font families, URL’s of images, etc is. Only when XML declarations along with XHTML DOCTYPE are being used on the page, CSS is case -sensitive.

18. Define Declaration block?
A catalog of directions within braces consisting of property, colon and value is called declaration block.
e.g.: [property 1: value 3]

19. Enlist the various fonts’ attributes?
They are:
Font-style, Font-variant, Font-weight, Font-size/line-height, Font-family, Caption, Icon

20. Why is it easy to insert a file by importing it?
Importing enables combining external sheets to be inserted in many sheets. Different files and sheets can be used to have different functions.
Syntax:
@import notation, used with tag.

21. What is the usage of Class selector?
Selectors that are unique to a specific style, are called CLASS selectors. Declaration of style and association with HTML can be made through this.
Syntax:
Classname
it can be A-Z, a-z or digits.
.top {font: 14em ;}, class selector this class is associated with element

22. Differentiate Class selector from ID selector?
While an overall block is given to class selector, ID selector prefers only a single element differing from other elements.

23. Can more than one declaration be added in CSS?
Yes, it can be achieved by using a semicolon.

24. What is Pseudo-elements ?
Pseudo-elements are used to add special effects to some selectors. CSS in used to apply styles in HTML mark-up. In some cases when extra mark-up or styling is not possible for the document, then there is a feature available in CSS known as pseudo-elements. It will allow extra mark-up to the document without disturbing the actual document.

25. How to overrule underlining Hyperlinks?
Control statements and external style sheets are used to overrule underlining Hyperlinks.
E.g.:
B {
text-decoration: none;
}
<B href="career.html" style="text-decoration: none">link text</B>

26. What happens if 100% width is used along with floats all across the page?
While making the float declaration, 1 pixel is added every time it is used in the form of the border, and even more float is allowed thereafter.

27. Can default property value be restored through CSS? If yes, how?
In CSS, you cannot revert back to old values due to lack of default values. The property can be re- declared to get the default property.

28. Enlist the various Media types used?
Different media has different properties as they are case insensitive.
They are:
Aural – for sound synthesizers and speech
Print – gives a preview of the content when printed
Projection- projects the CSS on projectors.
Handheld- uses handheld devices.
Screen- computers and laptop screens.

29. What is CSS Box Model and what are its elements?
This box defines design and layout of elements of CSS. The elements are:
Margin: the top most layer, the overall structure is shown
Border: the padding and content option with a border around it is shown. Background color affects the border.
Padding: Space is shown. Background colour affects the border.
Content: Actual content is shown.

30. What is contextual selector?
Selector used to select special occurrences of an element is called contextual selector. A space separates the individual selectors. Only the last element of the pattern is addressed in this kind of selector.
For e.g.: TD P TEXT {color: blue}

31. Compare RGB values with Hexadecimal color codes ?
A color can be specified in two ways:
A color is represented by 6 characters i.e. hexadecimal color coding. It is a combination of numbers and letters and is preceded by #. e.g.: g {color: #00cjfi}
A color is represented by a mixture of red, green and blue. The value of a color can also be specified. e.g.: rgb(r,g,b): In this type the values can be in between the integers 0 and 255. rgb(r%,g%,b%): red, green and blue percentage is shown.

32. Define Image sprites with context to CSS ?
When a set of images is collaborated into one image, it is known as ‘Image Sprites’. As the loading every image on a webpage consumes time, using image sprites lessens the time taken and gives information quickly.
CSS coding:
img.add { width: 60px; height: 55px; background: url (image.god) 0 0; }
In this case, only the part needed is used. The user can save substantial margin and time through this.

33. Compare Grouping and Nesting in CSS ?
Grouping: Selectors can be grouped having the same values of property and the code be reduced.
E.g. :
h1 {
color: blue;
}
h2 {
color: blue;
}
p {
color: blue;
}

It can be seen from the code that every element shares the same property. Rewriting can be avoided by writing each selector separated by a comma.
Nesting: Specifying a selector within a selector is called nesting.
P{
color: red;
text-align: left;
}
.marked{
background-color: blue;
}
.marked p{
color: green;
}

34. How can the dimension be defined of an element ?
Dimension properties can be defined by:
Height
Max-height
Max-width
Min-height
Min-width
Width

35. Define float property of CSS?
By float property, the image can be moved to the right or the left along with the text to be wrapped around it. Elements before this property is applied do not change their properties.

36. How does Z index function?
Overlapping may occur while using CSS for positioning HTML elements. Z index helps in specifying the overlapping element. It is a number which can be positive or negative, the default value being zero.

37. What is graceful degradation?
In case the component fails, it will continue to work properly in the presence of a graceful degradation. The latest browser application is used when a webpage is designed. As it is not available to everyone, there is a basic functionality, which enables its use to a wider audience.
In case the image is unavailable for viewing, text is shown with the alt tag.

38. What is progressive enhancement?
It’s an alternative to graceful degradation, which concentrates on the matter of the web. The functionality is same, but it provides an extra edge to users having the latest bandwidth. It has been into prominent use recently with mobile internet connections expanding their base.

39. How can backward compatibility be designed in CSS?
HTML sheet methods is collaborated with CSS and used accordingly.

40. How can the gap under the image be removed?
As images being inline elements are treated same as texts, so there is a gap left, which can be removed by: CSS
img { display: block ; }

41. Why is @import only at the top?
@import is preferred only at the top, to avoid any overriding rules. Generally, ranking order is followed in most programming languages such as Java, Modula, etc. In C, the # is a prominent example of a @import being at the top.

42. Which among the following is more precedent: CSS properties or HTML procedures?
CSS is more precedent over HTML procedures. Browsers, which do not have CSS support, display HTML attributes.

43. What is Inline style?
The Inline style in a CSS is used to add up styling to individual HTML elements.

44. How comments can be added in CSS?
The comments in CSS can be added with /* and */.

45. Define Attribute Selector ?
It is defined by a set of elements, value and its parts.

46. Define property?
A style, that helps in influencing CSS. E.g. FONT. They have corresponding values or properties within them, like FONT has different style like bold, italic etc.

47. What is Alternate Style Sheet?
Alternate Style Sheets allows the user to select the style in which the page is displayed using the view>page style menu. Through Alternate Style Sheet, user can see a multiple version of the page on their needs and preferences.

48. Are quotes mandatory in URL’s?
Quotes are optional in URL’s, and it can be single or double.

49. What is at-rule?
Rule, which is applicable in the entire sheet and not partly, is known as at-rule. It is preceded by @ followed by A-Z, a-z or 0-9.

50. How can CSS be cascaded to mix with user’s personal sheet?
Properties can be a set in recommended places and the document modified for CSS to mix with user’s personal sheet.

51. List out CSS3 modules?
Answers :  Below are the listed major modules
• Selectors
• Box Model
• Backgrounds and Borders
• Text Effects
• 2D/3D Transformations
• Animations
• Multiple Column Layout
• User Interface

52. What new futures added in CSS3 for Borders and how Browser Support it?
Answer : 3 following border futures added
• border-radius
• box-shadow
• border-image
and all modern Browser Support it like below
Internet Explorer 9 supports border-radius and box-shadow
Firefox requires the prefix -moz- for border-image.
Chrome and Safari requires the prefix -webkit- for border-image.
Opera requires the prefix -o- for border-image.

53. How you will create Rounded Corners using css3?
Answer : We have to creat a class like below
<style>
.roundc{
border:2px solid #ff0000;
border-radius:25px;
background:#dddddd;
width:300px;
-moz-border-radius:25px; /* Firefox */
-webkit-border-radius:25px; /* Chrome and Safari */
-o-border-radius:25px; /* Opera */
}
</style>

and we have to add this class where we want the round corner like in below div

this is the round corner by css3


This is the div and round corner by css3

54. How we create border using images by CSS3?
Answers :  By using border-image: property of css3 we can create a border using images like below
.roundpcds
{
border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 round;
-moz-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 round; /* Firefox */
-webkit-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 round; /* Safari and Chrome */
-o-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 round; /* Opera */
}
.stretchPcds
{
-moz-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 stretch; /* Firefox */
-webkit-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 stretch; /* Safari and Chrome */
-o-border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 stretch; /* Opera */
border-image:url(borderpcds.png) 30 30 stretch;
}

56. How you will create Box Shadow and text Shadow using CSS3?
Answers : Like below we can create Box Shadow using
CSS3 .boxshadowpcds
{
box-shadow: 10px 10px 5px #ccccc;
}
.textshadowpcds
{
text-shadow: 5px 5px 5px #FF0000;
}
and then need to use these class boxshadownpcds ,textshadowpcds

57. What is the CSS3 The background size Property?
Answers :  The background-size property specifies the size of the background image.
As we know Before CSS3, the background image size was find out by the real size of the image. In CSS3 it is possible to specify the size of the background image, which allows you to re-use background images in different ways.
.propcls
{
background:url(background.gif);
-moz-background-size:80px 60px; /* Firefox 3.6 */
background-size:80px 60px; /* or we can do background-size:100% 100%;*/
background-repeat:no-repeat;
}

58. What is the word wrap / word wrapping in CSS3 ?
Answers : To Allow long words to be able to break and wrap onto the next line in css3 we used word-wrap property like below class
.wordwrappcds{word-wrap:break-word;}

59. What is the CSS3 animation ?
Answers :
When the animation is created in the @keyframe, bind it to a selector, otherwise the animation will have no effect.
Bind the animation to a selector by specifying at least these two CSS3 animation properties:
• Specify the name of the animation
• Specify the duration of the animation

HTML5 Interview Questions

1. What is HTML?
HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is the dominant markup language for creating websites and anything that can be viewed in a web browser. If you want to get some extra bonus points, you can learn the history of HTML and throw in some obscure facts.

2. What is the difference between HTML elements and tags?
HTML elements communicate to the browser how to render text. When surrounded by angular brackets <> they form HTML tags. For the most part, tags come in pairs and surround text.

3. What is “Semantic HTML?”
Semantic HTML is a coding style where the tags embody what the text is meant to convey. In Semantic HTML, tags like <b></b> for bold, and <i></i> for italic should not be used, reason being they just represent formatting, and provide no indication of meaning or structure. The semantically correct thing to do is use <strong></strong> and <em></em>. These tags will have the same bold and italic effects, while demonstrating meaning and structure (emphasis in this case).

4. What does DOCTYPE mean?
The term DOCTYPE tells the browser which type of HTML is used on a webpage. In turn, the browsers use DOCTYPE to determine how to render a page. Failing to use DOCTYPE or using a wrong DOCTYPE may load your page in Quirks Mode. See example:
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd”&gt;.

5. What’s the difference between standards mode and quirks mode?
Quirks Mode is a default compatibility mode and may be different from browser to browser, which may result to a lack of consistency in appearance from browser to browser.

6. What are the limitations when serving XHTML pages?
Perhaps the biggest issue is the poor browser support XHTML currently enjoys. Internet Explorer and a number of other user agents cannot parse XHTML as XML. Thus, it is not the extensible language it was promised to be. There are many other issues. Take your pick.

7. How many HTML tags are should be used for the most simple of web pages?
Total tags needed is 8. 4 pairs of tags.
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Simplest page ever!</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
Doesn’t get simpler than this.
</BODY>
</HTML>

8. How do you make comments without text being picked up by the browser?
Comments are used to explain and clarify code or to prevent code from being recognized by the browser. Comments start with “*<!–” and end with ” –>“.
<!-- Insert comment here. -->

9. What is the difference between linking to an image, a website, and an email address?
To link an image, use <img> tags. You need specify the image in quotes using the source attribute, src in the opening tag. For hyperlinking, the anchor tag, <a>, is used and the link is specified in the href attribute. Text to be hyperlinked should be placed between the anchor tags. Little known fact: href stands for “hypertext reference.” When linking to an email, the href specification will be “mailto:send@here.com.” See examples below:
<img src=”HTMLrocks.jpg”></img>
<a href=”skilprelaunch2.wpengine.com”>Skilledup</a>
<a href=”brad@skilledup.com”>Email Me</a>

10. My hyperlink or image is not displaying correctly, what is wrong with it?
It could be any number of things, but the most common mistakes are leaving out a tag bracket or quote missing for href, src, or alt text may be the issue. You should also verify the link itself.

11. What is the syntax difference between a bulleted list and numbered list?
Bulleted lists use the <ul> tag, which stands for “unordered,” whereas <ol> is used to create an ordered list.

12. What is the difference between <div> and <frame>?
A <div> is a generic container element for grouping and styling, whereas a <frame> creates divisions within a web page and should be used within the <frameset> tag. The use of <frame> and <frameset> are no longer popular and are now being replaced with the more flexible <iframe>, which has become popular for embedding foreign elements (ie. Youtube videos) into a page.

13. What is the difference between the application model of HTML and HTML5?
Trick question, there is no difference. HTML5 is a continuum of HTML and just a souped up version of the original HTML. There has been no major paradigm shift.

14. What is the difference between HTML and HTML5?
Ans: HTML5 is an upgraded version of HTML. HTML5 comes with lot of new features like Video, Audio/mp3, date select function, placeholder, Canvas, 2D/3D Graphics and Local SQL Database which were not available in previous HTML versions.

15. What is the <!DOCTYPE> ? Is it necessary to use in HTML5?
Ans: The <!DOCTYPE> is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.
The <!DOCTYPE> tag does not have an end tag and It is not case sensitive.
The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in HTML5 document, before the <html> tag. As In HTML 4.01, all <! DOCTYPE > declarations require a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD), because HTML 4.01 was based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). WHERE AS HTML5 is not based on SGML, and therefore does not require a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD).

16. How many New Markup Elements you know in HTML5
Ans: Below are the New Markup Elements added in HTML5
Tag Description
<article> Specifies independent, self-contained content, could be a news-article, blog post, forum post, or other articles which can be distributed independently from the rest of the site.
<aside> For content aside from the content it is placed in. The aside content should
be related to the surrounding content
<bdi> For text that should not be bound to the text-direction of its parent elements
<command> A button, or a radiobutton, or a checkbox
<details> For describing details about a document, or parts of a document
<summary> A caption, or summary, inside the details element
<figure> For grouping a section of stand-alone content, could be a video
<figcaption> The caption of the figure section
<footer> For a footer of a document or section, could include the name of the author, the
date of the document, contact information, or copyright information
<header> For an introduction of a document or section, could include navigation
<hgroup> For a section of headings, using <h1> to <h6>, where the largest is the main
heading of the section, and the others are sub-headings
<mark> For text that should be highlighted
<meter> For a measurement, used only if the maximum and minimum values are known
<nav> For a section of navigation
<progress> The state of a work in progress
<ruby> For ruby annotation (Chinese notes or characters)
<rt> For explanation of the ruby annotation
<rp> What to show browsers that do not support the ruby element
<section> For a section in a document. Such as chapters, headers, footers, or any
other sections of the document
<time> For defining a time or a date, or both
<wbr> Word break. For defining a line-break opportunity.

17. What are the New Media Elements in HTML5? Is canvas element used in HTML5?
Ans: Below are the New Media Elements have added in HTML5
Tag Description
<audio> For multimedia content, sounds, music or other audio streams
<video> For video content, such as a movie clip or other video streams
<source> For media resources for media elements, defined inside video or audio
elements
For embedded content, such as a plug-in
<track> For text tracks used in mediaplayers
we can use Canvas element in html5 like <canvas></canvas>

18. What elements have disappeared in HTML5?
<frame> and <frameset> have been eliminated. Other elements that are no longer supported include: <noframe>, <applet>, <bigcenter> and <basefront>.

19. Do you know New Input Type Attribute in HTML5?
Ans: we can use below new input type Attribute in HTML5
Type Value
tel The input is of type telephone number
search The input field is a search field
url a URL
email One or more email addresses
datetime A date and/or time
date A date
month A month
week A week
time The input value is of type time
datetime-local A local date/time
number A number
range A number in a given range
color A hexadecimal color, like #82345c
placeholder Specifies a short hint that describes the expected value of an input field

20. How to add video and audio in HTML5
Ans: Like the code given below we can add Video in html5
<video width=“320″ height=“240″ controls=“controls”>
<source src=“mysong.mp4″ type=“video/mp4″ />
<source src=“mysong.ogg” type=“video/ogg” />
</video>
And Audio like this
<audio controls=“controls”>
<source src=“mysong.ogg” type=“audio/ogg” />
<source src=“mysong.mp3″ type=“audio/mpeg” /> </audio>

21. What is the use of localStorage in HTML5?
Ans: Before HTML5 Local Storage was done with cookies. Cookies are not very good for large amounts of data, because they are passed on by every request to the server, so it was very slow and in-effective.
In HTML5, the data is NOT passed on by every server request, but used only when asked for. It is possible to store large amounts of data without affecting the website’s performance. A website can only access data stored by itself.
And for creating localstores just need to call localStorage object like below we are storing name and address

localStorage.name=“PHPZAG”;
document.write(localStorage.name);

localStorage.address=“Newyork USA”;
document.write(localStorage.address);

22. What is the sessionStorage Object in html5 ? How to create and access?
Ans: The sessionStorage object stores the data for one session. The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window. Like below we can create and access a sessionStorage here we created “name” as session

sessionStorage.name=“PHPZAG”;
document.write(sessionStorage.name);

23. What are the new image elements in HTML5?
Canvas and WebGL. <Canvas> is a new element that acts as a container for graphical elements like images and graphics. Coupled with JavaScript, it supports 2D graphics. WebGL stands for Web Graphics
Language, a free cross-platform API that is used for generating 3D graphics in web browsers.

24. What is the difference between SVG and <Canvas>?
<Canvas> is an element that manipulates two-dimensional (2D) pixels while Scalable Vector Graphics works in 2D and three-dimensional (3D) vectors. Essentially, <Canvas> is to SVG as Photoshop is to
Illustrator.

25. What are data- attributes good for?
The HTML5 data- attribute is a new addition that assigns custom data to an element. It was built to store sensitive or private data that is exclusive to a page or application, for which there are no other matching
attributes or elements.

26. What is the difference between HTML5 interaction in Sencha and Twitter/Bootstrap?
Sencha and Twitter/Bootstrap are both HTML development frameworks that integrate HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript. The major difference is that in Sencha, the three languages are all comingled together in code, whereas in Bootstrap, HTML and CSS and decoupled.

27. What purpose do Work Workers serve and what are some of their benefits?
Web Workers are background scripts that do not interfere with the user interface or user interactions on a webpage, allowing HTML to render uninterrupted while JavaScript works in the background.

28. Describe the difference between cookies, sessionStorage, and localStorage.
Cookies are small text files that websites place in a browser for tracking or login purposes. Meanwhile, localStorage and sessionStorage are new objects, both of which are storage specifications but vary in scope
and duration. Of the two, localStorage is permanent and website-specific whereas sessionStorage only lasts as long as the duration of the longest open tab.

29. What are some of the major new API’s that come standard with HTML5?
To name a few: Media API, Text Track API, Application Cache API, User Interaction, Data Transfer API, Command API, Constraint Validation API, and the History API.

30. What is the difference in caching between HTML5 and the old HTML?
An important feature of HTML5 is the Application Cache. It creates an offline version of a web application. and stores website files such as HTML files, CSS, images, and JavaScript, locally. It is a feature that
speeds up site performance.

31. What is the difference between inline-block and inline-table?
Display-table will make your tag behave like a table. inline-table just mean that The element is displayed as an inline-level table. You can then do table-cell that let your element behave like a <td> element.
Display-inline – displays your element as an inline element (like <span>), and inline-block will just group them together in a block container.

32. What the use of Canvas Element in HTML5?
Ans: The canvas element is used to draw graphics images on a web page by using javascript like below
<canvas id=“pcdsCanvas” width=“500″ height=“400″>
</canvas>

var pcdsCanvas=document.getElementById(“phpzagCanvas”);
var pcdsText=pcdsCanvas.getContext(“2d”);
pcdsText.fillStyle=“#82345c”;
pcdsText.fillRect(0,0,150,75);

33. What purpose does HTML5 serve?
Ans: HTML5 is the proposed next standard for HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 and DOM Level 2 HTML. It aims to reduce the need for proprietary plug-in-based rich internet application (RIA) technologies such as Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, Apache Pivot, and Sun JavaFX.

34. What is the difference between HTMl5 Application cache and regular HTML browser cache?
Ans: HTML5 specification allows browsers to prefetch some or all of a website assets such as HTML files, images, CSS, JavaScript, and so on, while the client is connected. It is not necessary for the user to have accessed this content previously, for fetching this content. In other words, application cache can prefetch pages that have not been visited at all and are thereby unavailable in the regular browser cache. Prefetching files can speed up the site’s performance, though you are of course using bandwidth to download those files initially.

35. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STORAGE IN HTML5?
Ans:
HTML5 offers two new objects for storing data on the client:
LocalStorage – stores data with no time limit

localStorage.lastname=“ZAG”;
document.write(localStorage.lastname);

SessionStorage – stores data for one session.The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window.

sessionStorage.lastname=“ZAG”;
document.write(sessionStorage.lastname);

36.WHAT ARE THE NEW APIS PROVIDED BY THE HTML 5 STANDARD? GIVE A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH?
Ans:
The canvas element: Canvas consists of a drawable region defined in HTML code with height and width attributes. JavaScript code may access the area through a full set of drawing functions similar to other common 2D APIs, thus allowing for dynamically generated graphics. Some anticipated uses of the canvas include building graphs, animations, games, and image composition.
• Timed media playback
• Offline storage database
• Document editing
• Drag-and-drop
• Cross-document messaging
• Browser history management
• MIME type and protocol handler registration

37. WHAT OTHER ADVANTAGES DOES HTML5 HAVE?
Ans:
a) Cleaner markup
b) Additional semantics of new elements like <header>, <nav>, and <time>
c) New form input types and attributes that will (and in Opera’s case, do) take the hassle out of scripting forms.

38. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HTML 5 STANDARD?
Ans: HTML5 is being developed as the next major revision of HTML (HyperText Markup Language), the core markup language of the World Wide Web. The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) started work on the specification in June 2004 under the name Web Applications 1.0.[1] As of March 2010[update], the specification is in the Draft Standard state at the WHATWG, and in Working Draft state at the W3C.
39. Explain some HTML5 New Form Attributes?
Ans :
• pattern
• placeholder
• required
• step
• autocomplete
• autofocus
• height and width
• list
• min and max
• multiple
• form
• formaction
• formenctype
• formmethod
• formnovalidate
• formtarget

40. What does a <hgroup> tag do?
Ans : The <hgroup> tag is used to group heading elements.
The <hgroup> element is used to group a set of <h1> to <h6> elements.
<hgroup>
<h1>Hello</h1>
<h2>How r u?</h2>

41. What is the major improvement with HTML5 in reference to Flash?
Flash is not supported by major mobile devices such as iPad, iPhone and universal android applications. Those mobile devices have lack of support for installing flash plugins. HTML5 is supported by all the devices, apps and browser including Apple and Android products. Compared to Flash, HTML5 is very secured and protected. That eliminates major concerns that we have seen with Flash.

Android Interview Questions and Answers (Basic)

What is Android?
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications.

Explain the Architecture of android ?
Top -> Applications (Contacts, Browser, Phone, etc)

Below Applications -> Application Framework(Activity Manager, Window Manager, Content Providers, View System, Package manager,
Telephony manager, Resource, Notification, Location managers)

Below Application Framework -> System Libraries(Like Sqlite, webkit, SSL, OpenGL, Media Framework etc) & Android Runtime( Core Libraries and DVM)

Atlast Last -> Linux Kernel (which composed of drivers like display, camera etc.)

Describe the APK format.
The APK file is compressed the AndroidManifest.xml file, application code (.dex files), resource files, and other files.
A project is compiled into a single .apk file.

What is an action?
A description of something that an Intent sender desires.

What is an activity?
A single screen in an application, with supporting Java code.
An activity presents a visual user interface for one focused endeavor the user can undertake.
For example, an activity might present a list of menu items users can choose from or it might display photographs along with their captions.
Each one is implemented as a subclass of the Activity base class.

What is a service?
A service doesn’t have a visual user interface, but rather runs in the background for an indefinite period of time.
For example, a service might play background music as the user attends to other matters, or it might fetch data over the network or calculate
something and provide the result to activities that need it.
Each service extends the Service base class.

What is a Broadcast receivers?
A broadcast receiver is a component that does nothing but receive and react to broadcast announcements.
For example, announcements that the timezone has changed, that the battery is low or that the user changed a language preference.
All receivers extend the BroadcastReceiver base class.
Broadcast receivers do not display a user interface. However, they may start an activity in response to the information they receive,
or they may use the NotificationManager to alert the user like(flashing the backlight, vibrating the device, playing a sound)

What is a content provider?
A content provider makes a specific set of the application’s data available to other applications.The content provider extends the ContentProvider
base class to implement a standard set of methods that enable other applications to retrieve and store data of the type it controls.
However, applications do not call these methods directly. Rather they use a ContentResolver object and call its methods instead.

What is intent?
A class (Intent) describes what a caller desires to do. The caller sends this intent to Android’s intent resolver, which finds the most suitable activity for the intent.

How is nine-patch image different from a regular bitmap?
It is a resizable bitmap resource that can be used for backgrounds or other images on the device. The NinePatch class permits drawing a bitmap in nine sections. The four corners are unscaled; the four edges are scaled in one axis, and the middle is scaled in both axes.

What languages does Android support for application development?
Android applications are written using the Java programming language.

What is a resource?
A user-supplied XML, bitmap, or other file, injected into the application build process, which can later be loaded from code.

What Virtual Machine Android runs on?
Dalvik virtual machine

Android Latest Version?
Android 3.0

How do you define the user interface?
XML Format is the best.

Code Snippets:
————————
How to start a browser instance with some url ?

Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW);
Uri u = Uri.parse("http://google.com");
intent.setData(u);
startActivity(intent);

//Function called when return from a sub activity.

protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, String data, Bundle extras) {
}

//How to retrieve the device IMEI Number

TelephonyManager mTelephonyMgr = (TelephonyManager) getSystemService(Context.TELEPHONY_SERVICE);
imei = mTelephonyMgr.getDeviceId(); 

How to call a subactivity?

Intent intent = new Intent(this, SubActivity.class);
//to pass data
addintent.putExtra(name, value);
startActivityForResult(intent, int);